Vertigo is a feeling of spinning or whirling when you are not moving. It can also be an exaggerated feeling of motion when your body is still. Vertigo is a symptom that can be caused by many different conditions. Vertigo is different from passing dizziness or lightheadedness.
Inner ear nerves and structures sense the position of your head and body in space. Vertigo is often caused by problems with these nerves and structures. Less commonly, it is due to problems in the brain.
Vertigo can be classified as:
Vertigo of Peripheral Origin
Vertigo of peripheral origin is caused by problems of the inner ear. It is the most common type of vertigo. Causes may include:
- Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
- Meniere's disease
- Perilymphatic fistula—an abnormal canal or connection in the inner ear
- Ototoxic medications—some medications can disrupt the inner ear's ability to balance
- Acoustic neuroma —benign tumor of the inner ear
- Reduced blood flow
- Otosclerosis —a bony growth near the middle ear
Vertigo of Central Origin
Vertigo of central origin is not as common as vertigo of peripheral origin, but it is more serious. This type of vertigo is affects the brainstem or the cerebellum, the region of the brain that controls balance. Causes may include:
Last reviewedApril 2013by Rimas Lukas, MD; Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.